1- Energy (temperature):
It has been found that a temperature in the range of 90- 96 C is good to make a good cup of coffee. To explain this we need to understand the effect of temperature on coffee extraction.
A clear indication of energy is temperature (heat), and the hotter an object is the more energy it has. Also, heat transfers energy from molecules that have an excess of it to molecules that have less.
That applies on brewing coffee, because the heat used in the water of brewing coffee has a big influence on the extraction. Higher extraction temperature results in faster extraction rate due to most compounds being more soluble in higher temperature.
All that lead to the conclusion that temperature of the water used to brew coffee is very important. If the water temperature is low, the brewed cup will be thin (low body ), flat, and have lower flavor profile.
As temperature increases, the bitterness, acidity, astringency, acridness, body, and flavor intensities increase.